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3rd Annual Congress on Diabetes and Its Complications, will be organized around the theme “Current Trends & Advancements in Diabetes Research for Better Healthcare System”

Diabetes Congress 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Diabetes Congress 2019

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Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

 

It is a branch of physiology and medicine concerned with endocrine glands and hormones. The doctors who are specialist in dealing with endocrinology gland disorders and functions those are called as Endocrinologists. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces.

Pediatric endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood. The most common disease of the specialty is type 1 diabetes and the next most common problem is growth disorders. The specialty also deals with hypoglycemia and other forms of hyperglycemia in childhood, variations of puberty, as well other adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary gland problems

People who are suffering with diabetes mellitus type 2 have to maintain their diet and weight of the body. Now a day we have so many options for weight loss and maintaining weight. Eating well can also help you lose and maintain a healthy weight. In fact, losing just 5 to 7 percent of your body weight may help you better control type 2 diabetes According to the World Health Organization, 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.

Diabetic nephropathy is a serious kidney-related complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It is also called diabetic kidney disease. Up to 40 percent of people with diabetes eventually develop kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy affects the ability of your kidneys to do their usual work of removing waste products and extra fluid from your body. The best way to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy is by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and treating your diabetes and high blood pressure.

Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. Some people have mild symptoms But for others, diabetic neuropathy can be quite painful and disabling.

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication.

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes that consists of high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with complications to both mother and child. Gestational diabetes starts when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Without enough insulin, glucose cannot leave the blood and be changed to energy. Glucose builds up in the blood to high levels. This is called hyperglycemia Gestational diabetes affects the mother in late pregnancy, after the baby's body has been formed, but while the baby is busy growing. Because of this, gestational diabetes does not cause the kinds of birth defects sometimes seen in babies whose mothers had diabetes before pregnancy.

 

People with diabetes face a higher than normal risk of oral health problems. The link between diabetes and oral health problems is high blood sugar. If blood sugar is poorly controlled, oral health problems are more likely to develop. This is because uncontrolled diabetes weakens white blood cells, which are the body’s main defense against bacterial infections that can occur in the mouth.

People with diabetes face a higher risk of:    

  • Dry mouth
  • Gum inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontitis
  • Poor healing of oral tissues
  • Thrush
  • Burning mouth and/or tongue

There is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent of people age 65 or older with diabetes die from some form of heart disease; and 16% die of stroke. Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. That's because people with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, may have the following conditions that contribute to their risk for developing cardiovascular disease

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides
  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Poorly controlled blood sugars (too high) or out of normal range

The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin, one the main hormones that helps to regulate blood glucose levels. The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the body’s immune system. In type 2 diabetes, the body builds up resistance to insulin and more insulin is needed to bring down blood glucose levels. As a result the pancreas needs to produce more insulin than it would normally need to.

Diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis. Periodontal diseases are infections of the gum and bone that hold the teeth in place. In advanced stages, they lead to painful chewing problems and even tooth loss. Like any infection, gum disease can make it hard to keep your blood sugar under control. People with poor blood sugar control get gum disease more often and more severely, and they lose more teeth than do persons with good control. In fact, people whose diabetes is well controlled have no more periodontal disease than persons without diabetes. Children with IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) are also at risk for gum problems. Good diabetic control is the best protection against periodontal disease.

Diabetes diseases can affect each and every part of the human body, including the skin, heart, foot, teeth etc. In fact, these problems are the first sign that a person has diabetes. Diabetes disease Related Skin Conditions are Acanthosis Nigricans, Diabetic Dermopathy, Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum, Allergic ReactionsDiabetic Blisters, Eruptive Xanthomatosis, Digital Sclerosis, Disseminated Granuloma Annulare. In general skin complications may be cause because of Fungal Infections, Bacterial Infections Itching etc

Diabetic patience’s are prone to having foot problems, because of two complications of diabetes: first one nerve damage (neuropathy) and second one poor circulation. Neuropathy leads to cause loss of feeling in your feet, taking away your ability to feel discomfort and pain, so you are unable to detect an injury or irritation in your foot. Poor blood circulation in your feet reduces your ability to heal, making it hard for even a tiny cut to resist infection.

Diabetes-Related Foot & Leg Problems

  • Infections and ulcers (sores) that do not heal
  • Corns and calluses
  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Nail disorders
  • Hammertoes and bunions
  • Charcot foot
  • Poor blood flow

 

Gastro paresis is a problem affecting people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes Mellitus in which the stomach will takes too long time to empty its contents. Diabetes can leads to damage vagus nerve if blood glucose levels are high over a long period of time. The vagus nerve has complete control on movement of food through the digestive tract. If the vagus nerve is damaged or stops working, the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work properly, and the movement of food is slowed or stopped.

Signs and symptoms of gastro paresis include the following:

  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting of undigested food
  • Early feeling of fullness when eating
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Erratic blood glucose (sugar) levels
  • Lack of appetite
  • Gastro esophageal reflux
  • Spasms of the stomach wall

Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome is a serious problem caused by extremely high blood sugar levels. Person with type 2 diabetes are at risk for a problem called hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). We can obseve HHNS in type 1 diabetes in very rare causes. HHNS leads to death.

Symptoms:

Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome can take few days or weeks to develop. Possible symptoms are mentioned below:

  • Blood sugar level of 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or high
  • Excessive thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased urination
  • Warm, dry skin
  • Fever
  • Drowsiness, confusion
  • Hallucinations
  • Vision loss
  • Convulsions
  • Coma

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious problem of diabetes which occurs when your body produces more levels of blood acids which are called as ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem in of Type 1 diabetes and, we can rarely observe in Type 2 diabetes people.

Diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms and signs are often developing quickly, some cases it will be within 24 hours. Below mentioned symptoms are often indications that they are having Diabetes Ketoacidosis

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fruity-scented breath
  • Confusion

Diabetes is a serious condition which still doesn't have a cure which makes new research, treatment and management techniques a crucial necessity. Over the past years there have been considerable breakthroughs in understanding and preventing diabetic complications. While some research focuses on generating artificial pancreas or engineering insulin-producing beta cells, some other researches are directed towards finding newer and longer lasting drug molecules, devising more efficient diets and developing intensive treatment programs. Trends and advances on diabetes research is the need of the hour for bringing about excellent management of this serious life-threatening disease

Maintaining mental and emotional health is necessary for good diabetes management. Beliefs, Feelings, and attitudes can majorly affect how healthy your body is. Untreated mental health problems can make diabetes daises worse, and problems with diabetes can make mental health problems worse. But hopefully if one gets better, the other tends to get better, too. Depression is a medical illness that causes a loss of interest in activities you used to enjoy and feelings of sadness. It can get change in the way of how well you function at work and home, including taking care of your diabetes. When you aren’t able to manage your diabetes in a well manner, your risk goes up for diabetes complications like Nerve damage and heart diseases.

A combination of physical activities and diet promotion through support programs and counseling decrease weight, improve cholesterol levels, improve systolic blood pressure and decrease risk of diabetes disease. Increasing physical activities may be helpful in decreasing type 2 diabetes, particularly if undertaken soon after a carbohydrate rich meal that increases blood sugar levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends maintaining a healthy weight, getting at least 2½ hours of exercise per week (several brisk sustained walks appear sufficient), having a modest fat intake (around 30% of energy supply should come from fat), and eating sufficient fiber.

 

With the help of some medical tests and by using medical devices we can diagnosis diabetes and pre diabetes. The fasting plasma glucose test will measures your blood glucose levels after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating. This test is used to detect pre diabetes or diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance method measures your blood sugar after you have gone at least 8hrs without eating and 2hrs after you drink a glucose containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose pre diabetes and diabetes. Diabetes can be diagnosis by Random plasma glucose test, in this method your doctor calculate your blood sugar without regard to when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an assessment of signs, is used to diagnose diabetes, but not pre diabetes.

Also referred to as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), this procedure of treatment, which is not a part of standard medical care, have been found to be beneficial for many individuals with diabetes. Such treatments include Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Ayurvedic Medicine, Aromatherapy, relaxation therapy, etc. Some of these therapies aim at treating the body and the mind and are also helpful for relaxing and relieving stress. Additionally, such therapies help in mitigating nerve pain in individuals who have diabetic neuropathy

Global diabetes market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.6% percent for the forecasted period of 2018-2023. The market is segmented on the basis of type of diabetes, drugs class and diabetic devices. Diabetic drugs have the highest market share amongst drugs and devices and are also expected to have the highest growth rate with a CAGR of 8.9%. Some of the top selling diabetic drugs include Lantus (Sanofi), Januvia (Merck And Co), Humalog (Eli Lily And Co), Novorapid (Novo Nordisk), Levemir (Novo Nordisk), Victoza (Novo Nordisk), Janumet (Merck And Co.), Novolog (Novo Nordisk), Humalin (Eli Lily And Co.) And Galvus (Novartis). With the diabetic population expected to cross the 350 million markets by 2030 the market is expected to show strong growth rate. Diabetic drugs are highly priced which could be one of the major drawbacks